Raw Materials for Brewing
This module covers the following aspects of the raw materials used in brewing:
- Structure and biochemistry of the barley grain.
- Botany & Agronomy of malting barleys/ varietal evaluation.
- Barley genomics & breeding programmes to enhance malting quality.
Malting Science & Practice:
- Outline of the malting process: Intake, storage & dressing/ Steeping/ Germination/ Kilning/ de-culming/ blending.
Malting biochemistry (key enzymes & enzymic modification/ biochemical changes occurring during germination; molecular regulation of barley germination.)
- Characteristics & production of the main classes of malts used in brewing.
- Flavour generation via the Maillard Reaction during kilning/ roasting
- The 'Virtual Malt Analysis Lab': Video Clips and animations covering the key malt quality parameters and associated analyses; typical values of key parameters.
- Malt specification; Quality Assurance; Maltings HACCP/ safety aspects.
Hops: (cultivation, varieties, processing and forms used in brewing, specifications and analysis, introductory hop chemistry )
Water Quality (sources of water, water treatment, significance of ionic composition)
Adjuncts (purpose and overview, Mash Tun adjuncts, Copper adjuncts) and other topics related to raw materials as deemed appropriate.
This module is integral to the ‘brewing process’ course component and covers the scientific principles and technology of processes employed in the Brewhouse: · Milling of malt · Wort Production (mashing):Process control: principal mashing methods and mash schedules; influence & control of mash pH; mashing biochemistry (e.g. starch conversion, proteolsis, glucans/ arabinoxylans & mash viscosity) · Mash separation; theory, technologies & equipment design · Wort boiling Rationale behind process & technologies employed; process control Formation of colour and flavour (Maillard chemistry & polyphenolics; reductones) Evaporation/volatile stripping Protein denaturation & trub formation (protein-polyphenol interactions) pH drop & mechanisms involved Wort oxidation & redox state Hop (product) addition in the boil. Hot wort clarification; the whirlpool Wort cooling (cold break) & aeration Wort quality Aspects of Brewhouse design, utilisation (capacity planning) & energy conservation and other topics related to the generation of wort for fermentation as deemed appropriate.
Brewery Yeast Management
This module considers brewing yeast management in relation to brewery fermentations. Students are introduced to scientific principles and their relevance to industrial practices:
- Brewing taxonomy
- Brewing yeast cell biology
- Brewing yeast genetics
- Brewing yeast biochemistry
- Brewing yeast replication and growth
- Yeast culture maintenance and supply
- Methods of analysis (genetic, biochemical and physiological)
- Brewing yeast propagation and pitching
- Other topics related to brewing yeast fermentation as deemed appropriate.
Fermentation and Yeast Handling
This module considers brewing fermentations and the importance of yeast within the process. Students are introduced to scientific principles and their relevance to industrial practices:
- Brewing yeast biochemistry
- Brewing yeast propagation and pitching
- Fermentation (biochemistry, technologies and process control)
- Brewing yeast flocculation and sedimentation
- Brewing yeast crop recovery, storage, acid washing and recycling
- Recovery and disposal of spent yeast
- Other topics related to malting as deemed appropriate.
This module considers biological and chemical processes that contribute to the maturation of beer once fermentation is complete. Students are introduced to scientific principles and relevance to industrial practice of:
- Maturation: flavour and aroma changes. Techniques to achieve product specification
- Formation of non-biological hazes and stabilisation against non-biological haze
- Carbonation: carbon dioxide addition, saturation and recovery
- Clarification and filtration. Removal of yeast and beer recovery, beer filtration
- Specialised beer treatments: low-alcohol, alcohol-free, ice beers, diet beers, bottle conditioning
and other topics related to maturation of beer as deemed appropriate.
Brewery Waste Management and Environmental Issues
This module considers water effluents, waste treatments and disposal and conversion of waste streams into valuable co-products. Students are introduced to scientific principles and relevance to industrial practice of:
- Sources of water, forms of treatment and the characterization of waste water, Life Cycle Analysis principle and application
- Carbon footprint
- The disposal of brewery effluents
- Biotechnology and bioconversions
- Disposal and potential uses of spent grains
- Disposal and potential uses of spent yeast
- Reduction in energy consumption in the brewery and other topics related to maturation of beer as deemed.
This module considers the occurrence, frequency and biology of non-brewing microorganisms that are associated with spoilage during the brewing process or the final product. The impact of microorganisms on process and beer will also be considered. Students are introduced to:·
- Spoilage microorganisms associated with the brewing process and final beer product
- Sampling, detection and identification of brewery microorganisms
- Disinfection of brewery yeast
- Cleaning- in place (CIP) operations
- The principles and practice of brewery hygiene
- Other topics related to brewing microbiology as deemed appropriate
Beer Flavour Development and Sensory Analysis
Flavor quality across the brewing process, examining the key materials, processes & quality parameters which influence beer flavor from grain to glass. Develops understanding of multisensory flavor perception & theoretical aspects of the sensory evaluation of beer.
Beer Flavour Development:
- Key components of beer flavor (volatile / non-volatile flavor components & balance; sweetness-bitterness balance; chloride-sulfate ratio; trigeminal effects: temperature/ carbonation; mouthfeel (e.g. beer foam, viscosity) influence of pH; multisensory considerations). Interactions between the senses.
- Range of beer styles and their flavor characteristics.
- Development & control of key beer flavor characters or off-notes throughout the brewing process.
- Trouble-shooting flavor defects in beer
- Flavor stability / staling of beer during storage: oxidation/ maturation. To include methods for monitoring beer staling; current theories of beer flavor stability; separate contributions of materials & process to flavor stability; potential markers for beer staling
- Theory of sensory analysis/ designing & running sensory trials
- Facilities & recruitment of assessors
- Introduction to main sensory methodologies (e.g. discrimination testing/ quantitative methods/ descriptive/ profiling, threshold determination/ hedonic tests)
- Beer flavor wheel/ QDA of beer
- Ethical considerations/ consumer testing and behavior.
- Experimental design & analysis of sensory data; ANOVA
Beer Analysis and Quality Management
Development of the key chemical & physical properties of beer which determine its’ quality & the analytical techniques which are used to measure them. When & where in the process should measurements be taken (Brewery Analysis Plan) & how are these measurements integrated into the necessary Quality Systems? INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS Basic principles of instrumental analysis Separation science: chromatography theory & applications (particularly HPLC/GC) Standard methods of beer analysis (chemical & physical): e.g. Ethanol (ABV, SG, OG, etc.); Beer colour & flavor attributes; Bitterness (IBU); VDK; DMS; acidity; bulk composition (protein/ carbohydrate/ minerals) dissolved gases (CO2/O2); foam stability/ head retention; viscosity measurement; polyphenols; Experimental design & data analysis The Normal distribution and associated statistics Method development, inter-laboratory trials and accreditation Output specifications, tolerance & monitoring. QUALITY: Definitions of beer quality. Formulation of beer & process specifications & how these may be used to monitor & assess product & process quality. Brewery Quality Systems; QC versus QA. HACCP. Accreditation of quality systems. Asset management. Cross-process themes that impact on beer quality, e.g: Oxygen & product quality. Managing colloidal stability (cross-referenced to D24BS5). The impact of raw materials & the brewing process on beer flavor (cross-referenced to D24BS9).
Packaging of Beer
This module covers the essential elements of packaging beers and other related alcoholic beverages. The module includes theoretical and legal aspects of packaging together with consideration of the design and operation of modern high speed packaging lines. Specific units are:
- Design and operation of bright beer tanks; maintain bright beer specifications including carbonation, clarity, flavour and microbiological status.
- Assuring the microbiological stability of packaged beer using aseptic filtration, flash pasteurization and tunnel pasteurization.
- Achieving specifications of packaged beers including legal aspects of packaging and labeling.
- Packaging beers into large-pack containers including cask and keg.
- Packaging beers in small-pack containers including glass, PET and can
- Secondary and tertiary packaging used for beers and related alcoholic beverages.
- The design and operation of modern high-speed packaging lines suitable for beers and other related alcoholic beverages. A consideration of the measurement of packaging line efficiency and the impact of production planning will be included. Warehouse design and operation and primary and secondary distribution systems used in brewing.
- Beer dispense and cellar management
Brewing research project
Students will be required to carry out a practical project in brewing science which involves the application of contemporary concepts, theories and methodologies relevant to a selected topic. Content will be agreed with the course supervisor appointed to the project to ensure that the academic level is appropriate for a postgraduate course. Ideally the project will be carried out in the workplace to address a real situation; however, where this is not feasible or dependent upon the requirements of the research project, a laboratory based project may be undertaken.
The modules we offer are inspired by the research interests of our staff and as a result may change for reasons of, for example, research developments or legislation changes. This list is an example of typical modules we offer, not a definitive list.